Connell (1987) examines the interrelations of philips consumer tv lcd manual pdf nature and culture on the body.
CR groups were unthreatening and easy to organize, required no skills or knowledge other than a willingness to discuss ones own experiences in life, and had very positive results from the women involved in them (Freeman 1975: 117).
A more constructive way forward, argues Lister, is a conception of citizenship that combines elements of the gender-neutral and gender-differentiated approaches, employed strategically, while at the same time remaining sensitive to the differences that exist between women.
Class Generally, the concept of class is used in the analyses of social divisions based on the unequal distribution of economic resources.
In womens constructions, morality tends to be centred around an ethic of care, of responsibility for others, so that moral conflicts or problems must be resolved with a view to maintaining relationships with others.Balsamo concurs with Haraway that the ubiquity of technologies through which the body can be refashioned within contemporary culture has opened up the potential for both the practical refashioning of gendered bodies and the theoretical reconstruction of gender.Stanley and Wise argue that their feminist ontology challenges masculinist Cartesian dualism in a number of ways, including 25 dichotomy key concepts Pilcher-KeyConcepts 26 19/2/04 1:13 pm Page 26 through recognising and valuing difference, conceived in nonoppositional terms, and through understanding the body as embodiment.In reference to its ancient historical health o meter manual origins, Elshtain terms this understanding of politics and citizenship the Greek way and argues that it operates to exclude and debase women.Connell also identifies cultural practices which transcend (or transform) the body physically, making and remaking bodies so that they are more, or less, feminine or masculine.Gender studies is seen by many to further open up the field of womens studies, beyond its beginnings in the politics of the Womens Liberation Movement.It deploys both the new findings of scientific research and the sentimental moralizing of yesteryear; it turns into media sound bites both the glib pronouncements of pop-psych trend-watchers and the frenzied rhetoric of New Right preachers (Faludi 1992: 12).Imelda wishes to thank David Sadler for his support during the preparation of this book.Class Pilcher-KeyConcepts 19/2/04 1:13 pm Page 17 Consciousness raising became one of the key activities that underpinned second wave feminism and made it distinct from its forebears, and announced the emergence of a very different kind of political organisation.
Each key concept begins with a concise definition, followed by illustrations of how the concept has been applied within the field.
Citizenship may be a concept with ancient historical origins, but it continues to be a fertile source of debate both within contemporary gender studies, and more widely.
Such positionings are problematic, in that women may be idolised as mothers of the Nation through their reproductive and home-making activities and, relatedly, be the targets of rape as a weapon in inter-ethnic wars.
A more fundamental problem with conventional class analysis is argued to derive from the occupational classification schemes used to determine a persons class.
Haraways argument is, then, that the image of the cyborg holds promise as a way of rethinking similarities and differences in social relations, via the way it focuses attention on specific historical positionings and permanent partialities without abandoning the search for potent connections (1991: 1).This backlash against feminism seemed to come into force during the mid-1980s, characterised in political terms with the upsurge of the New Right in both the UK and the USA and the vigorous promotion of family values (which often assumed a subordinate and primarily domestic.Not only does this remind us of one of the key aims of early womens studies courses (the focus on the authenticity of experience as a valuable tool of research and knowledge but it is also testimony to the fact that gender and womens studies.In a way CR groups success provide a clue to the way in which activist womens movements gave way to more personal reflections and academic theorising in the 1980s.It reminds us that equality is itself not a straightforward aim in a world riven with inequalities between genders and across ethnicities and social arrangements, and gradually feminists have acknowledged that there cannot simply be one model of equality.For Gilligan, her findings reveal the need for development theories in psychology to be revised, so that their analysis of the characteristics of moral conceptions in both women and men is more expansive.This tendency is clear in the account of Maccoby and Jacklin (1975 who explicitly refer to biology as the framework which constrains socialisation practices, making it possible for culture only to minimise, rather than eliminate, the effects of natural biological differences between women and men.Consciousness raising Pilcher-KeyConcepts 19/2/04 1:13 pm Page 19 gender studies CR groups also represented the move to political separatism for modern feminism and for many women that in itself was experienced as liberation.These exceptions to notional equality prompted more of an equal but different inflection to the argument.It is a 21 cyborg key concepts Pilcher-KeyConcepts 22 19/2/04 1:13 pm Page 22 concept that encourages a double focus or a simultaneous recognition, first, of the ways in which Woman/women can be positioned as a location from which gendered, raced and national identities are.In the field of cultural studies, Balsamos (1996) work on practices and representations of the gendered body in the USA draws together the cyborg themes of technology and identity.
Modern feminism from the outset drew a distinction between biological and cultural differences biological ones having been so important in the subordination of women in the past and focused much more on the cultural.
As Smith writes with reference to the modern Western context, The problem is not a special, unfortunate and accidental omission of this or that field, but a general, organisational feature of our kind of society (1988: 22).